There is therefore now no condemnation to them which are in Christ Jesus,
who walk not after the flesh, but after the Spirit.
There is therefore now no condemnation — Either for things present or past. Now
he comes to deliverance and liberty. The apostle here resumes the thread of his
discourse, which was interrupted, Romans 7:7 .
 For the law of the Spirit of life in Christ Jesus hath made me free from the
law of sin and death.
The law of the Spirit — That is, the gospel.
Hath freed me from the law of sin and death — That is, the Mosaic dispensation.
 For what the law could not do, in that it was weak through the flesh, God
sending his own Son in the likeness of sinful flesh, and for sin, condemned sin in
For what the law — Of Moses.
Could not do, in that it was weak through the flesh — Incapable of conquering our
evil nature. If it could, God needed not to have sent his own Son in the likeness
of sinful flesh – We with our sinful flesh were devoted to death. But God sending
his own Son, in the likeness of that flesh, though pure from sin, condemned that
sin which was in our flesh; gave sentence, that sin should be destroyed, and the
believer wholly delivered from it.
 That the righteousness of the law might be fulfilled in us, who walk not after
the flesh, but after the Spirit.
That the righteousness of the law — The holiness it required, described, Romans
Might be fulfilled in us, who walk not after the flesh, but after the Spirit — Who are
guided in all our thoughts, words, and actions, not by corrupt nature, but by the
Spirit of God. From this place St. Paul describes primarily the state of believers,
and that of unbelievers only to illustrate this.
 For they that are after the flesh do mind the things of the flesh; but they that
are after the Spirit the things of the Spirit.
They that are after the flesh — Who remain under the guidance of corrupt nature.
Mind the things of the flesh — Have their thoughts and affections fixed on such
things as gratify corrupt nature; namely, on things visible and temporal; on things
of the earth, on pleasure, (of sense or imagination,) praise, or riches.
But they who are after the Spirit — Who are under his guidance.
Mind the things of the Spirit — Think of, relish, love things invisible, eternal; the
things which the Spirit hath revealed, which he works in us, moves us to, and
promises to give us.
 For to be carnally minded is death; but to be spiritually minded is life and
For to be carnally minded — That is, to mind the things of the flesh.
Is death — The sure mark of spiritual death, and the way to death everlasting.
But to be spiritually minded — That is, to mind the things of the Spirit.
Is life — A sure mark of spiritual life, and the way to life everlasting. And
attended with peace – The peace of God, which is the foretaste of life
everlasting; and peace with God, opposite to the enmity mentioned in the next
 Because the carnal mind is enmity against God: for it is not subject to the
law of God, neither indeed can be.
Enmity against God — His existence, power, and providence.
 So then they that are in the flesh cannot please God.
They who are in the flesh — Under the government of it.
 But ye are not in the flesh, but in the Spirit, if so be that the Spirit of God
dwell in you. Now if any man have not the Spirit of Christ, he is none of his.
In the Spirit — Under his government.
If any man have not the Spirit of Christ — Dwelling and governing in him.
He is none of his — He is not a member of Christ; not a Christian; not in a state
of salvation. A plain, express declaration, which admits of no exception. He that
hath ears to hear, let him hear!
 And if Christ be in you, the body is dead because of sin; but the Spirit is life
because of righteousness.
Now if Christ be in you — Where the Spirit of Christ is, there is Christ.
The body indeed is dead — Devoted to death.
Because of sin — Heretofore committed.
But the Spirit is life — Already truly alive.
Because of righteousness — Now attained. From Romans 8:13 , St. Paul, having
finished what he had begun, Romans 6:1 , describes purely the state of believers.
 Therefore, brethren, we are debtors, not to the flesh, to live after the flesh.
We are not debtors to the flesh — We ought not to follow it.
 For if ye live after the flesh, ye shall die: but if ye through the Spirit do
mortify the deeds of the body, ye shall live.
The deeds of the flesh — Not only evil actions, but evil desires, tempers, thoughts.
If ye mortify — Kill, destroy these.
Ye shall live — The life of faith more abundantly here, and hereafter the life of
 For as many as are led by the Spirit of God, they are the sons of God.
For as many as are led by the Spirit of God — In all the ways of righteousness.
They are the sons of God — Here St. Paul enters upon the description of those
blessings which he comprises, Romans 8:30 , in the word glorified; though,
indeed, he does not describe mere glory, but that which is still mingled with the
cross. The sum is, through sufferings to glory.
 For ye have not received the spirit of bondage again to fear; but ye have
received the Spirit of adoption, whereby we cry, Abba, Father.
For ye — Who are real Christians.
Have not received the spirit of bondage — The Holy Ghost was not properly a spirit
of bondage, even in the time of the Old Testament. Yet there was something of
bondage remaining even in those who then had received the Spirit.
Again — As the Jews did before.
We — All and every believer.
Cry — The word denotes a vehement speaking, with desire, confidence,
Abba, Father — The latter word explains the former. By using both the Syriac and
the Greek word, St. Paul seems to point out the joint cry both of the Jewish and
gentile believers. The spirit of bondage here seems directly to mean, those
operations of the Holy Spirit by which the soul, on its first conviction, feels itself
in bondage to sin, to the world, to Satan, and obnoxious to the wrath of God.
This, therefore, and the Spirit of adoption, are one and the same Spirit, only
manifesting itself in various operations, according to the various circumstances
of the persons.
 The Spirit itself beareth witness with our spirit, that we are the children of
The same Spirit beareth witness with our spirit — With the spirit of every true
believer, by a testimony distinct from that of his own spirit, or the testimony of a
good conscience. Happy they who enjoy this clear and constant.
 And if children, then heirs; heirs of God, and joint-heirs with Christ; if so be
that we suffer with him, that we may be also glorified together.
Joint heirs — That we may know it is a great inheritance which God will give us
for he hath given a great one to his Son.
If we suffer with him — Willingly and cheerfully, for righteousness’ sake. This is a
new proposition, referring to what follows.
 For I reckon that the sufferings of this present time are not worthy to be
compared with the glory which shall be revealed in us.
For I reckon — This verse gives the reason why he but now mentioned sufferings
and glory. When that glory “shall be revealed in us,” then the sons of God will be
 For the earnest expectation of the creature waiteth for the manifestation of
the sons of God.
For the earnest expectation — The word denotes a lively hope of something
drawing near, and a vehement longing after it.
Of the creation — Of all visible creatures, believers excepted, who are spoken of
apart; each kind, according as it is capable. All these have been sufferers
through sin; and to all these (the finally impenitent excepted) shall refreshment
redound from the glory of the children of God. Upright heathens are by no means
to be excluded from this earnest expectation: nay, perhaps something of it may
at some times be found even in the vainest of men; who (although in the hurry
of life they mistake vanity for liberty, and partly stifle. partly dissemble, their
groans, yet) in their sober, quiet, sleepless, afflicted hours, pour forth many sighs
in the ear of God.
 For the creature was made subject to vanity, not willingly, but by reason of
him who hath subjected the same in hope,
The creation was made subject to vanity — Abuse, misery, and corruption.
By him who subjected it — Namely, God, Genesis 3:17 ; 5:29 . Adam only made it
liable to the sentence which God pronounced; yet not without hope.
 Because the creature itself also shall be delivered from the bondage of
corruption into the glorious liberty of the children of God.
The creation itself shall be delivered — Destruction is not deliverance: therefore
whatsoever is destroyed, or ceases to be, is not delivered at all. Will, then, any
part of the creation be destroyed? Into the glorious liberty – The excellent state
wherein they were created.
 For we know that the whole creation groaneth and travaileth in pain together
For the whole creation groaneth together — With joint groans, as it were with one
And travaileth — Literally, is in the pains of childbirth, to be delivered of the
burden of the curse.
Until now — To this very hour; and so on till the time of deliverance.
 And not only they, but ourselves also, which have the firstfruits of the Spirit,
even we ourselves groan within ourselves, waiting for the adoption, to wit, the
redemption of our body.
And even we, who have the first-fruits of the Spirit — That is, the Spirit, who is the
first-fruits of our inheritance.
The adoption — Persons who had been privately adopted among the Romans
were often brought forth into the forum, and there publicly owned as their sons
by those who adopted them. So at the general resurrection, when the body itself
is redeemed from death, the sons of God shall be publicly owned by him in the
great assembly of men and angels.
The redemption of our body — From corruption to glory and immortality.
 For we are saved by hope: but hope that is seen is not hope: for what a
man seeth, why doth he yet hope for?
For we are saved by hope — Our salvation is now only in hope. We do not yet
possess this full salvation.
 Likewise the Spirit also helpeth our infirmities: for we know not what we
should pray for as we ought: but the Spirit itself maketh intercession for us with
groanings which cannot be uttered.
Likewise the Spirit — Nay, not only the universe, not only the children of God, but
the Spirit of God also himself, as it were, groaneth, while he helpeth our
infirmities, or weaknesses. Our understandings are weak, particularly in the
things of God our desires are weak; our prayers are weak.
We know not — Many times.
What we should pray for — Much less are we able to pray for it as we ought: but
the Spirit maketh intercession for us – In our hearts, even as Christ does in
With groanings — The matter of which is from ourselves, but the Spirit forms
them; and they are frequently inexpressible, even by the faithful themselves.
 And he that searcheth the hearts knoweth what is the mind of the Spirit,
because he maketh intercession for the saints according to the will of God.
But he who searcheth the hearts — Wherein the Spirit dwells and intercedes.
Knoweth — Though man cannot utter it.
What is the mind of the Spirit, for he maketh intercession for the saints — Who are
near to God.
According to God — According to his will, as is worthy of God. and acceptable to
 And we know that all things work together for good to them that love God,
to them who are the called according to his purpose.
And we know — This in general; though we do not always know particularly what
to pray for.
That all things — Ease or pain, poverty or riches, and the ten thousand changes
Work together for good — Strongly and sweetly for spiritual and eternal good.
To them that are called according to his purpose — His gracious design of saving a
lost world by the death of his Son. This is a new proposition. St. Paul, being
about to recapitulate the whole blessing contained in justification, (termed
“glorification,” Romans 8:30 ,) first goes back to the purpose or decree of God,
which is frequently mentioned in holy writ. To explain this (nearly in the words of
an eminent writer) a little more at large:-When a man has a work of time and
importance before him, he pauses, consults, and contrives; and when he has laid
a plan, resolves or decrees to proceed accordingly. Having observed this in
ourselves, we are ready to apply it to God also; and he, in condescension to us
has applied it to himself. The works of providence and redemption are vast and
stupendous, and therefore we are apt to conceive of God as deliberating and
consulting on them, and then decreeing to act according to “the counsel of his
own will;” as if, long before the world was made, he had been concerting
measures both as to the making and governing of it, and had then writ down his
decrees, which altered not, any more than the laws of the Medes and Persians.
Whereas, to take this consulting and decreeing in a literal sense, would be the
same absurdity as to ascribe a real human body and human passions to the
ever-blessed God. This is only a popular representation of his infallible knowledge
and unchangeable wisdom; that is, he does all things as wisely as a man can
possibly do, after the deepest consultation, and as steadily pursues the most
proper method as one can do who has laid a scheme beforehand. But then,
though the effects be such as would argue consultation and consequent decrees
in man, yet what need of a moment’s consultation in Him who sees all things at
one view? Nor had God any more occasion to pause and deliberate, and lay down
rules for his own conduct from all eternity, than he has now. What was there any
fear of his mistaking afterwards, if he had not beforehand prepared decrees, to
direct him what he was to do? Will any man say, he was wiser before the
creation than since? or had he then more leisure, that he should take that
opportunity to settle his affairs, and make rules (or himself, from which he was
never to vary? He has doubtless the same wisdom and all other perfections at
this day which he had from eternity; and is now as capable of making decrees,
or rather has no more occasion for them now than formerly: his understanding
being always equally clear and bright, his wisdom equally infallible.
 For whom he did foreknow, he also did predestinate to be conformed to the
image of his Son, that he might be the firstborn among many brethren.
Whom he foreknew, he also predestinated conformable to the image of his Son —
Here the apostle declares who those are whom he foreknew and predestinated
to glory; namely, those who are conformable to the image of his Son. This is the
mark of those who are foreknown and will be glorified, 2 Timothy 2:19 .
Philippians 3:10,21 .
 Moreover whom he did predestinate, them he also called: and whom he
called, them he also justified: and whom he justified, them he also glorified.
Them he — In due time.
Called — By his gospel and his Spirit.
And whom he called — When obedient to the heavenly calling, Acts 26:19 .
He also justified — Forgave and accepted.
And whom he justified — Provided they “continued in his goodness,” Romans
11:22 , he in the end glorified – St. Paul does not affirm, either here or in any
other part of his writings. that precisely the same number of men are called,
justified, and glorified. He does not deny that a believer may fall away and be cut
off between his special calling and his glorification, Romans 11:22 . Neither does
he deny that many are called who never are justified. He only affirms that this is
the method whereby God leads us step by step toward heaven.
He glorified — He speaks as one looking back from the goal, upon the race of
faith. Indeed grace, as it is glory begun, is both an earnest and a foretaste of
 What shall we then say to these things? If God be for us, who can be
What shall we say then to these things — Related in the third, fifth, and eighth
chapters? As if he had said, We cannot go, think, or wish anything farther.
If God be for us — Here follow four periods, one general and three particular.
Each begins with glorying in the grace of God, which is followed by a question
suitable to it, challenging all opponents to all which, “I am persuaded,” etc., is a
general answer. The general period is, If God be for us, who can be against us?
The first particular period, relating to the past time, is, He that spared not his
own Son, how shall he not freely give us all things? The second, relating to the
present, is, It is God that justifieth. Who is he that condemneth? The third,
relating to the future, is, It is Christ that died – Who shall separate us from the
love of Christ?
 He that spared not his own Son, but delivered him up for us all, how shall
he not with him also freely give us all things?
He that — This period contains four sentences: He spared not his own Son;
therefore he will freely give us all things. He delivered him up for us all;
therefore, none can lay anything to our charge. Freely – For all that follows
justification is a free gift also.
All things — Needful or profitable for us.
 Who shall lay any thing to the charge of God’s elect? It is God that
God’s elect — The above-cited author observes, that long before the coming of
Christ the heathen world revolted from the true God, and were therefore
reprobated, or rejected. But the nation of the Jews were chosen to be the
people of God, and were therefore styled, “the children” or “sons of God,”
Deuteronomy 14:1 ; “holy people,” Deuteronomy 7:6 ; 14:2 ; “a chosen seed,”
Deuteronomy 4:37 ; “the elect,” Isaiah 41:8,9 ; 43:10 ; “the called of God,” Isaiah
48:12 . And these titles were given to all the nation of Israel, including both good
and bad. Now the gospel having the most strict connexion with the Books of the
Old Testament, where these phrases frequently occur; and our Lord and his
apostles being native Jews, and beginning to preach in the land of Israel, the
language in which they preached would of course abound with the phrases of
the Jewish nation. And hence it is easy to see why such of them as would not
receive him were styled reprobated. For they no longer continued to be the
people of God; whereas this and those other honourable titles were continued to
all such Jews as embraced Christianity. And the same appellations which once
belonged to the Jewish nation were now given to the gentile Christians also
together with which they were invested with all the privileges of “the chosen
people of God;” and nothing could cut them off from these but their own wilful
apostasy. It does not appear that even good men were ever termed God’s elect
till above two thousand years from the creation. God’s electing or choosing the
nation of Israel, and separating them from the other nations, who were sunk in
idolatry and all wickedness, gave the first occasion to this sort of language. And
as the separating the Christians from the Jews was a like event, no wonder it
was expressed in like words and phrases only with this difference, the term elect
was of old applied to all the members of the visible church; whereas in the New
Testament it is applied only to the members of the invisible.
 Who is he that condemneth? It is Christ that died, yea rather, that is risen
again, who is even at the right hand of God, who also maketh intercession for
Yea rather, that is risen — Our faith should not stop at his death, but be exercised
farther on his resurrection, kingdom, second coming.
Who maketh intercession for us — Presenting there his obedience, his sufferings,
his prayers, and our prayers sanctified through him.
 Who shall separate us from the love of Christ? shall tribulation, or distress,
or persecution, or famine, or nakedness, or peril, or sword?
Who shall separate us from the love of Christ — Toward us? Shall affliction or
distress – He proceeds in order, from less troubles to greater: can any of these
separate us from his protection in it ; and, if he sees good, deliverance from it?
 As it is written, For thy sake we are killed all the day long; we are
accounted as sheep for the slaughter.
All the day — That is, every day, continually.
We are accounted — By our enemies; by ourselves. Psalms 44:22 .
 Nay, in all these things we are more than conquerors through him that loved
We more than conquer — We are not only no losers, but abundant gainers, by all
these trials. This period seems to describe the full assurance of hope.
 For I am persuaded, that neither death, nor life, nor angels, nor principalities,
nor powers, nor things present, nor things to come,
I am persuaded — This is inferred from the thirty-fourth verse, in an admirable
order: – Neither death” shall hurt us; For “Christ is dead:” “Nor life;” ‘is risen” Nor
angels, nor principalities, nor powers; nor things pre – sent, nor things to come;”
“is at the right hand of God:” “Nor height, nor depth, nor any other creature;”
“maketh intercession for us.” Neither death – Terrible as it is to natural men; a
violent death in particular, Romans 8:36 .
Nor life — With all the affliction and distress it can bring, Romans 8:35 ; or a long,
easy life; or all living men.
Nor angels — Whether good (if it were possible they should attempt it) or bad,
with all their wisdom and strength.
Nor principalities, nor powers — Not even those of the highest rank, or the most
Nor things present — Which may befal us during our pilgrimage; or the whole
world, till it passeth away.
Nor things to come — Which may occur either when our time on earth is past, or
when time itself is at an end, as the final judgment, the general conflagration,
the everlasting fire.
Nor height, nor depth — The former sentence respected the differences of times;
this, the differences of places. How many great and various things are contained
in these words, we do not, need not, cannot know yet.
The height — In St. Paul’s sublime style, is put for heaven.
The depth — For the great abyss: that is, neither the heights, I will not say of
walls, mountains, seas, but, of heaven itself, can move us; nor the abyss itself,
the very thought of which might astonish the boldest creature.
Nor any creature — Nothing beneath the Almighty; visible enemies he does not
even deign to name.
Shall be able — Either by force, Romans 8:35 ; or by any legal claim, Romans
8:33 , etc.
To separate us from the love of God in Christ — Which will surely save, protect,
deliver us who believe in, and through, and from, them all.